Footnote/Endnote Citation Form:

A Short Guide by Steve Volk

Footnotes only serve one purpose, to allow the reader to access with ease and confidence the source that you have used. Any citation form that does well this is appropriate, but most disciplines insist on their own particular way of citing information, and you must follow those preferences. There is nothing magical about these forms -- they all do the same thing -- but you should get used to the fact that different disciplines require different citation forms. The citation form most often used for History is taken from the University of Chicago Manual of Style. This is continually updated (and it is now in its 15th edition). Shortened as "Chicago style," this can be found in a handy form in Diana Hacker, A Pocket Style Manual, 4th ed. (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's Press, 2003), 183-208. Some of the examples of correct style that I use below are taken from that publication. PLEASE NOTE: While I largely follow "Chicago style," I have also made some modifications that I think work well. If you are asked to use strict "Chicago Manual style," you should refer to the Manual of Style itself, not my guide.

All citations for my papers should be in the form of footnotes (where the note literally appears at the foot of the page) or endnotes (located at the end of the paper if you prefer to do that or you can't get your software to turn out footnotes at the bottom of the page). There are no differences between footnotes and endnotes in terms of style formatting, only where they appear. Bibliographies require a different format, and I will inform you if I also want a bibliography. In the case of either footnotes or endnotes, the only indication that goes in the text itself is the footnote number, the small supra-number after the text you wish to reference. For my papers, there is only one time when it is proper to use parenthetical citations (e.g.: Smith, 23) in your text, and that is if you are writing a review of one or two books and the only references you have are to those books. In that case, you would use the full citation for the book in a footnote/endnote format the first time it appears and thereafter just put the page number of the quote or reference to that text in parentheses.

Proper Citation Form for Footnotes and Endnotes when citing Textual Material (see below for citations from the Internet).

Material First Citation Second and subsequent citations in same paper

Michael H. Fisher, Indirect Rule in India : Residents and the Residency System, 1764-1858 (New Deli, India: Oxford University Press, 1991), 100-101.

Heather Hogan, Forging Revolution: Metalworkers, Managers, and the State in St. Petersburg, 1890-1914 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993), 33.

Fisher, 23.


Hogan, 109.

Translated book Elena Poniatowska, Massacre in Mexico, trans. Helen Lane (New York: Viking Press, 1975), 146. Poniatowska, 150-51.
Book, two or three authors

Leonard V. Smith, Stéphane Audoin-Rouzeau, Annette Becker, France and the Great War, 1914-1918 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 23.

Smith, Audoin-Rouzeau, and Becker, 44.
Book, four or more authors Lynn Hunt, et al., The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures (Boston: Bedford, 2001), 300. Hunt, 303.
Edited book

Gary Kornblith, ed., The Industrial Revolution in America (Boston: Houghton Mifflin), 1998.

Carol Lasser and Marlene Merrill, eds., Soul Mates: the Oberlin Correspondence of Lucy Stone and Antoinette Brown, 1846-1850 (Oberlin: Oberlin College Press), 1983.

[NOTE: Almost always, unless you are referring to the volume as a whole, you will be citing from a specific chapter -- including the Introduction -- in your citation, in which case you will need to use the form below.]

Kornblith, ed., The Industrial Revolution.

Lasser and Merrill, eds., Soul Mates.

Chapter from an edited book

Ellen Stroud, "Troubled Waters in Ecotopia: Environmental Racism in Portland, Oregon," in Louis S. Warren, ed., American Environmental History (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2003), 300-301.

Pablo Mitchell, "Accomplished Ladies and Coyotes: Marriage, Power, and Straying from the Flock in Territorial New Mexico, 1880-1920," in Martha Hodes, ed., Sex, Love, Race : Crossing Boundaries in North American History (New York: New York University Press, 1999), 332-33.


Stroud, 313.


Mitchell, 340.

Book Edition (other than 1st) Marcia L. Colish, The Mirror of Language: A Study in the Medieval Theory of Knowledge, Rev. ed. (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1983), 120-121. Colish, 130.
Volume in a Multivolume Work James McPherson, Ordeal by Fire, vol. 2, The Civil War (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993), 205. McPherson, 206.
Journal Article

Steven Volk, "Mineowners, Moneylenders, and the State in Mid-Nineteenth Century Chile: Transitions and Conflicts," Hispanic American Historical Review 73 (February 1993): 67-98.

[Note: "73" is the volume number. It is not necessary to add the issue number since the date tells you that, but if you want to add the issue number, you would write: 73:1. ]

Volk, 33-4.



Magazine Article

[NOTE: A journal is a scholarly publication; a magazine is a from the popular press (e.g. Time, Life, etc.)

William A. Henry, III, "Journalism Under Fire," Time, December 12, 1983, 76. Henry, 78-9.

Steven Volk and Helen Shapiro, "25,000 American Steelworkers Can Kiss the Booms Boodby," Los Angeles Times, May 6, 1979, Part V.

Ximena Marre, "Ex agente procesado por ejecucion de Horman," El Mercurio [Santiago, Chile], December 11, 2003.

[NOTE: Include city/country of newspaper if it is not well known]

Volk and Shapiro, "25,000 American Steelworkers."

Marre, "Ex agente."

Citing a primary source that you read in a secondary source Josiah Strong, as quoted in Michael Hunt, "American Ideology: Visions of National Greatness and Racism," in Thomas G. Paterson and Stephen G. Rabe, eds., Imperial Surge: The United States Abroad: The 1890s - Early 1900s (Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath, 1992), 16. Strong, as quoted in Hunt, "American Ideology," 17.
Classroom lecture Ellen Wurtzel, October 17, 2009. Maeda, October 17, 2003.
Formal Lecture (not part of a class) Truly Boring, "The Proper Use of Footnotes in a College Paper," American Society of Footnoters 43rd Annual Meeting (Boston, MA), February 12, 1803. Boring, "Proper Use."
Government documents

U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1954. Vol. IV: American Republics (Washington, DC: GPO, 1986), 879.

U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations, The War in Chechnya: Russia's Conduct, The Humanitarian Crisis, and United States Policy: Hearing on S. Hrg. 106-500,106th Cong., 2nd sess., March 1, 2000 (Washington, DC: GPO, 2000), 23.

U.S. Congress, House, Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, Subcommittee on Terrorism and Homeland Security, Counterterrorism Intelligence Capabilities and Performance Prior to 9-11: A Report to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Minority Leader (Washington, D.C. : Subcommittee on Terrorism and Homeland Security, House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, 2002), 33.

FRUS, 1954. Vol IV, 567-68.


The War in Chechnya, 25.



Counterterrorism Intelligence Capabilities, 56.

Personal Communication Steven Volk, e-mail to author, October 15, 2003. Volk email, Oct. 15, 2003.

On-line or Electronic Sources

Citation of electronic sources is continually changing, and fluctuate considerably. The most important information to convey (and it is not always available) is: Author, Title of the Cite, Sponsor of the Site, and the Site's URL. When no author is named, treat the sponsor as the author. I also recommend that you include at the end of the citation the date on which you accessed the site. The Internet is not "stable." The site you visited yesterday may be slightly changed by the author tomorrow and reloaded at the same URL with the new information in it. By providing the date, you can tell the reader why the site she is looking at may not be the same one that the paper writer viewed two months ago.

Other types of citation: see "A Brief Citation Guide:" (

Material First Citation Second and subsequent citations
Normal Site National Security Archive, State Department Release on Chile Shows Suspicions of CIA Involvement in Charles Horman "Missing" Case, (Dec. 12, 2009).
Normal Site Steven S. Camarota, Immigration From Mexico:
Assessing the Impact on the United States
, Center for Immigration Studies, (Nov. 7, 2008).
Primary Documents on Line Eva Duarte de Perón, History of Peronism, Modern History Sourcebook, (March 22, 2002). [Original Source: Eva Duarte de Perón, Historia del Perónismo (Buenos Aires: Presidencia de la Nación, 1951)] Eva Peron, History of Peronism,
Primary Documents on Line Armainio Savioli, L'Unita Interview with Fidel Castro: The Nature of Cuban Socialism, Castro Internet Archive (January 30, 2003). [Original Source: L'Unita (Rome), No. 32 (1 February 1961)].

Savioli, "L'Unita Interview,"


JSTOR Article All articles in JSTOR are scanned copies of the originals viewable as .pdf files. Any article which is an exact copy of the original can be cited as if you read a hard copy of the journal with the addition that, after the citation, you provide the url of the database service in parentheses. For example, Alan Knight, "Popular Culture and the Revolutionary State in Mexico, 1910-1940," Hispanic American Historical Review 74:3 (1994), 400 ( NOTE: Only include the url of the database service, not of the articles itself, which is usually excessively long. Knight, 404.
Newspaper Articles On Line

"A Clever Burgler Caught," New York Times, Oct. 10, 1898 (Proquest). NOTE: If you used a database service, write the name of the database in parentheses.

Jennifer Loven, "Bush Promotes Pal to Head HUD," Chicago Sun Times, Dec. 13, 2003 ( NOTE: If you read the newspaper on line directly, include the url.

Here's how the same article would be referenced depending on where you read it on line:

Ian Black, "Iraq splits EU summit as Blair backs US," Guardian [UK], Dec. 13, 2003 (Lexis-Nexis Academic).

Ian Black, "Iraq splits EU summit as Blair backs US," Guardian [UK], Dec. 13, 2003 (,7369,1106337,00.html).

New York Times, Oct. 10, 1898.


Chicago Sun Times, Dec. 13, 2003.



Guardian, Dec. 13, 2003.


Guardian, Dec. 13, 2003.


Videocast/Podcast Lecture Posted on Line Steven Volk, "Lecture 20: Colonial Dialogues," Volk, "Lecture 20."
Podcast On the Media, "Dirty Documents," December 18, 2009:

"Dirty Documents."

On-line film clip Andre de la Varre, "Havana, Cuba 1930s," (Dec. 20, 2009). [To the extent that the source provides a photographer, videographer, director, etc, you should include that in the "author" position. Always include, at the end of the citation, the date on which you accessed the site. You can also specify the location in the clip that you are citing using an hour:minute:second format, e.g., 34:35, after the date.] "Havana, Cuba 1930s."

Citation Style for Images Used in Papers

Citations for images should include (where possible) the following information:
· author (artist, photographer, cartoonist, etc.);
· title, if it has one;
· where the image is located in appropriate cases (e.g. museum location);
· the date the image was made (if you know or can find out);
· the medium used;
· where or how you got the image.

Material First Citation Second and subsequent citations
Image seen on-line

Eanger Irving Couse, "The Captive" (1891), Phoenix Art Museum, oil on canvas (

If the image simply appears on a web-site with no other identifying marks, simply give the url. Eg.: Bob Dylan photograph,

"The Captive."


Dylan photograph.

Image from book or other printed source

Unknown, "Silver Cross advertisement" (1998), location unknown, advertisement [from Gillian Rose, Visual Methodologies (London: Sage Publications, 2001), p. 80].

If you have simply xeroxed a photograph from a text source:

Don Bishop, "Untitled," Tikkun 18:4 (July/August 2003), cover.

"Silver Cross advertisement."



Bishop, "Untitled."

News photograph from scanned source

Reuters, "Kiss and Make Up?," (Sept. 30, 2003), New York Times news photograph, page 1 [scanned from New York Times, Sept. 30, 2003].

"Kiss and Make Up?"